Appears like everybody is trucking as of late. And why not? Most people perceive trucks as a improved worth for their money. They just like the size, visibility and utility a truck gives as well as the “outdoorsman” picture conveyed by quite a few sport utility automobiles (SUVs) and sport trucks. Several of today’s trucks also have car-like ride and dealing with and come totally outfitted with each of the amenities, which makes them extra appealing to a wider array of consumers. So it’s no wonder there’s additional trucks within the road these days.

Despite their rugged picture, although, trucks and SUVs are equally as vulnerable to tire wear troubles and misalignment as cars. In reality, alignment is much more of the concern with trucks and SUVs as the tires have a tendency to be greater and more highly-priced than those on most cars. That is why an yearly alignment check out is usually proposed. An alignment check ought to also be performed whenever a automobile includes a tire put on problem or has become encountering a steering pull or other steering or managing related challenge.

TRUCK Techniques

Irrespective of your variety of truck that is certainly staying aligned, you will find some general principles to remember:

As element of the prealignment inspection, spend close consideration to your tires, not merely tread put on and affliction but additionally the inflation stress and comparative tire sizes (and brands) on the car. Mismatched tire sizes, tread patterns or perhaps different brands of tires on opposite sides can often make handling issues no volume of alignment can right.

Worn, bent or broken parts cannot be aligned. So you’ll want to verify the condition of the tie rod ends, idler arm, pitman arm, center hyperlink, suspension bushings, ball joints and axles.

Test ride height front and rear, and on the two sides. Numerous pickups possess a frame angle spec that need to be checked due to its effect on caster.

Observe out for an excessive amount of cross camber and caster. A lot more than half a degree of camber distinction side-to-side might result in a steering pull in direction of the side with the most beneficial camber. Caster angles should also be inside of half a degree side-to-side. A automobile will lead in direction of the side with constructive caster (the left front wheel usually will get a little additional caster to counter road crown).

Optimum tire life and dealing with on lots of pickups is usually accomplished by using 1/8 degree constructive camber to the passenger side and 3/8 degree beneficial to the driver’s side.

Always verify the SAI or KPI angle. The two SAI angles need to be within plus or minus one degree of one a different otherwise the vehicle may pull to one side.

Should you run into an alignment trouble on the “nonadjustable” suspension, don’t quit mainly because you can find commonly aftermarket alignment aids that could supply camber/caster corrections. So verify the auto parts shop and various suppliers to uncover out what is out there.


On GM 2WD light trucks, ride height ought to be measured ahead of anything at all else to establish camber and caster specifications. Typically, the ride height dimension could be the distance involving the back of the jounce bumper bracket as well as bottom in the cross member around the front suspension. Make reference to a shop or reference manual for the exact measuring spot. As being a rule, the side-to-side difference in ride height shouldn’t be much more than 3/8 inch. If ride height is less than specs, the vehicle wants new springs.

GM 4WD trucks with independent front suspensions normally have torsion bars that could be adjusted to maintain appropriate ride height. On older trucks, be sure to test for severe rust or cracks where the torsion bars mount in the frame.

Camber/caster adjustments on automobiles with independent coil spring suspensions involve turning eccentric bolts on the upper manage arm pivot shaft, or changing shims around the shaft.

On trucks that have nonsymmetrical upper manage arms with shims about the pivot shaft, you’ve to add an equal variety of shims to both shim packs about the pivot shaft to alter camber without the need of altering caster. Add shims to both shim packs to increase camber, remove shims to lessen it. To change caster, add shims to the rear shim pack to lessen caster and remove shims to boost it.

In case you should modify camber on a 1977 to 1987 4WD pickup by using a Dana 60 axle, aftermarket tapered shims might be installed amongst the steering knuckle and spindle. The occupation involves getting rid of the wheel, brake caliper, rotor and spindle so the shim can be set up in between the spindle and backing plate. Setting up the shim with the thickest element in the top on the spindle increases camber when positioning it using the thickest portion at the bottom decreases camber. Most shim suppliers never recommend stacking shims. Only one shim per wheel should be used. If extra correction is required, use a thicker shim. You can even use aftermarket kits for the upper and lower trunnions on Dana 60 axles.


One point to constantly test on Ford Twin I-Beam suspensions is ride height. Should the front tires demonstrate camber wear and the ride height is under specs, you can bet the springs are sagging. And since the springs perform a important role in identifying ride height (which impacts camber), it does not make a lot sense to make a camber correction until eventually the underlying issue has been fixed. The trick right here would be to replace or shim the sagging springs. If that fails to bring camber back inside specs, you’ll have to perform the following:

In case the Twin I-Beam axles would be the forged wide range, which had been used from 1965 by way of 1981, camber could be corrected by bending the axle having a hydraulic ram. To make a make a beneficial camber correction, a rigid operate beam is slung beneath the axle from a pair of clevis blocks. A hydraulic ram is then placed beneath the middle from the axle. When strain is utilized, the ram bends the axle upward and tilts the knuckle down to improve camber. A slight quantity of overbending is normally desired to compensate for spring back from the axle. A bad camber correction is manufactured by eliminating the outboard clevis block and inserting a spacer concerning the work beam and axle. The hydraulic ram is then repositioned straight beneath the inner axle bushing. When strain is utilized, the work beam bends the outer end with the axle up which tilts the knuckle and decreases camber.

In 1982, Ford introduced lighter stamped steel axle Twin I-Beam suspensions around the F100 and F150 pickups. The identical axle is likewise employed on 1989 and up Ranger pickups. These axles should not be bent for the reason that doing so could weaken them. Camber corrections around the stamped steel Twin I-Beam axles might be created by setting up an offset bushing in the upper ball joint. Before you substitute this bushing, though, note its position and quantity of offset (if any). This can enable you figure out just how much additional offset is needed. Numerous aftermarket makers provide zero degree sleeves which could be installed to zero out the ball joint stud area to a nominal centered place. Just after replacing the bushing, steer the wheel by hand to create confident the ball joint just isn’t binding.

Caster corrections on Ford Twin I-Beam suspensions may be completed one of three means: by replacing precisely the same upper ball joint bushing as above about the 1987 and later applications, by replacing the radius arm bushing wherever the radius arm connects towards the frame with an offset bushing, or by putting in offset cam bushings exactly where the by means of bolts attach the radius arms for the axles.

One more point to observe out for on Ford F150 2WD pickups together with the Twin I-Beam front suspension is rear ride height. Ford says any deviation in rear ride height with respect to stock ride height should really be taken into consideration just before aligning the front wheels. In the event the bed in the pickup sits higher or lower than stock as a result of helper or overload springs, or due to modifications that have been created to the automobile (a wrecker, dumpster, towing a fifth wheel trailer, and so on.), then the change in ride height and frame angle should be computed to compensate for its influence on front caster and camber. Refer to a Ford manual for the ride height and frame angle caster/camber correction chart.

Ford says that modified trucks such as wreckers, dumpsters, trucks utilised for towing, and so on should really be aligned to an “average” setting half way involving a loaded and unloaded ailment. To do this, ride height needs to be measured with all the truck loaded and unloaded. Subtract the loaded ride height from your unloaded ride height, divide the difference by two, add this quantity to your loaded ride height, and after that compare the quantity to the stock ride height to calculate the amount of compensation for camber and caster settings. Or, measure rear ride height loaded and unloaded, split the main difference, then load the truck with just sufficient fat or tie down the rear suspension so rear ride height is on the mid-point. Then align the front wheels for the preferred specs.

When aligning a Ford truck that has rubber bonded socket (RBS) tie rod ends, loosen the tie rod stud, break the taper and allow the tie rod to center itself in the event you modify toe in excess of 1/16 inch, otherwise you will get memory steer.

On 1980 to 1992 Ford Broncos and F150s, and 1989 to 1992 Ford F250s, a issue often known as “recession steer” could be encountered. A left drift or pull that happens although braking but produces no torque or pull from the steering wheel may be caused by the left radius arm front pivot bushings. It is vital to create sure the pull isn’t thanks to a sticky brake caliper or contaminated brake linings. If the brakes seem to become operating typically but there is a definite pull to the left when braking, the radius arm pivot bushings have to be replaced. Ford says it can be okay to reuse the unique nylon rear bushing spacer and rear bushing unless of course extreme wear is uncovered. Torque the radius arm nuts to 80-120 lb. ft. Toe should really be also be checked and reset to 1/32 inch toe-in.

If a pull even now exists right after replacing the radius arm pivot bushings, a lot of aftermarket makers promote offset radius arm bushings which allow you to modify caster to reduce the pull.

The newer Ford truck suspensions have pinch bolts which simplifies removal from the ball joint bushings. But do not presume the OE bushing includes a zero degree offset. Numerous have 1 to 1-1/2 degrees of offset, generally within the camber course. So if camber/caster corrections are necessary, note the marking stamped to the OE bushing when it is removed so you can identify how much more correction is needed. The first set of numbers stamped on the sleeve indicate the quantity of caster, and the 2nd set of numbers indicates camber. Subtract the numbers from the alignment readings to determine just how much extra correction is required.

An additional technique to figure simply how much correction camber/caster correction is really needed on these applications is to pull out the OE bushing, install a zero offset bushing, then recheck the camber/caster readings to determine how far they can be off from the preferred specs. Any corrections would then be created by putting in an aftermarket bushing together with the needed amount of degrees of offset.


On 1989-90 Dodge Ramcharger 4WD, Power Ram Cab 4WD and Ram Pickup 4WD trucks, spring sag may well bring about a ride height difficulty that impacts wheel alignment. Dodge says the left front spring could be the one that most frequently sags. If ride height is much less than specs, Dodge suggests putting in a 1-inch spacer under the spring, unless of course sag exceeds one inch in which case the springs need to be replaced. Dodge says to not stack shims, and also to be certain the front finish is correctly aligned soon after setting up the shim. The camber specs for these trucks is -1 to +1, using a preferred setting of 0 degrees.

Around the 1994 and newer Dodge Ram two-wheel drive trucks (except the 3500 Cab Chassis), camber/caster corrections are created employing the slotted pivot bar on the upper management arms. Within the 4WD trucks, camber is preset in the factory. Around the Dana 60 axle, the ball joints have a zero degree steel bushing, but about the Dana 44 axles there’s no bushing. Though Dodge says no camber adjustment is accessible on either the Dana 44 or Dana 60 front axles, there are aftermarket offset bushings for that Dana 60 axle and offset ball joints for the Dana 44 axle. Caster adjustments are provided, though, by a cam on the front from the reduced suspension arm.


When your car or truck has an air conditioning issue and requirements services, what must you do? In case your A/C system only wants some refrigerant, you may possibly recharge the a/c system your self. But if you happen to be owning cooling issues, leaks or electronic management challenges, you need to probably seek out a repair facility that specializes in air conditioning service operate.

Our advice is to look for out a repair facility that’s a member of MACS, the Mobile Air Conditioning Society. MACS can be a non-profit trade association for repair outlets that do air conditioning service do the job. MACS promotes teaching, training, professionalism, and most importantly “Best Practices” for servicing and repairing your vehicle’s air conditioning system.

Considering that 1991, MACS has assisted a lot more than one million technicians to comply with 1990 Clean Air Act needs for certification in refrigerant recovery and recycling to safeguard the environment.

Recently, the Climate Safety Partnership division in the U.S. EPA teamed up with MACS to publish and encourage 6 mobile air conditioning very best services practices checklists. These checklists are developed for experienced technicians to help them environmentally protected and technically suitable air conditioning services and repairs. The objective of the checklists is make sure your vehicle is serviced correctly when you take it in for air conditioning service function.

In case your shop will not be following these practices, you ought to bring it to their focus – or consider your car to a different shop who does follow the Ideal Practices recommendations.

Note: The most beneficial Practices checklists are voluntary recommendations, and therefore are not expected by law. Even so, they do reflect current pondering about the very best strategies to adequately services and repair automotive mobile A/C methods. The input for these checklists was offered by extremely professional A/C technicians who’re familiar using the appropriate ways and incorrect ways of servicing service A/C programs.

The checklists for Best Practices incorporate:

A/C Services (common)
Leak Detection
Refrigerant Recovery
System Charging
Field Repair and Assembly of A/C Hoses
A/C Equipment Maintenance.

The compressor is definitely the heart of the refrigeration circuit. It pumps and pressurizes the refrigerant to move it through the A/C system. Compressors get the job done really hard and run hot, up to quite a few hundred degrees and quite a few hundred pounds per square inch of internal stress. They depend on only a couple of ounces of lubricant to help keep their parts moving. In the event the lubricant is lost due to a leak, or the lubricant breaks down because of contamination, the compressor is not going to final. Sooner or later on, the compressor will phone it quits.
air conditioining compressor

Probably the most frequent symptom of a compressor failure (aside from no cooling) is often a seized compressor. It’s going to not turn if the magnetic clutch engages, so you could hear squeals of protest from your drive belt. Or, the belt might have presently broken or been thrown off its pulleys.

Reduction of lubrication is unquestionably by far the most widespread lead to of compressor failure. This will take place when there exists a refrigerant leak someplace in the system that allows refrigerant and oil to escape. Typical leak points are hoses, hose and pipe connections (O-rings and flange gaskets), the evaporator, condenser or the compressor shaft seal. An electronic leak detector or dye should be utilized to locate the leak so it could possibly be repaired.

A restriction inside the A/C system can also starve the compressor for oil. Oil circulates together with the refrigerant, so should the orifice tube or expansion valve is blocked it may lead to the compressor to run dry and seize.

Even when a compressor remains to be turning, it could have to be replaced if it is actually leaking, making extreme noise or not functioning accurately. Some compressors are naturally noisier than other people, but loud knocking noises can at times be due to air from the system (the cure right here is always to vacuum purge the system to remove the unwanted air, then to recharge the system with refrigerant). Metallic noises and bearing noise are usually signals the compressor is about to fail.

A fresh compressor might be required if the unit is leaking internally or not making adequate pressure as a result of poor reed valves, worn piston rings, or worn or scored cylinders, and so on.). A worn compressor or one with inner troubles will not have the capacity to develop normal operating pressures that has a full charge of refrigerant. This sort of challenge might be diagnosed with an A/C gauge set.

Poor cooling may also be due to many points aside from a undesirable compressor, so never substitute the compressor right up until you may have ruled out other prospects this kind of as being a reduced refrigerant charge, an excessive amount of oil while in the system, air contamination, a clogged condenser, plugged orifice tube, inoperative electric cooling fan, etc.

Compressor operation is often impacted by sensors in cars with automatic temperature manage systems. Some have an A/C strain transducer (generally mounted in the substantial side line) to monitor refrigerant pressure and shut off the compressor if pressure gets too higher; a compressor temperature sensor to turn off the compressor if it will get as well hot; and/or a compressor rpm sensor to check belt slippage. Mitsubishi, as an example, uses a “belt lock controller” to disengage the compressor if the drive belt slips or even the compressor seizes.

On 1996 and newer Mercedes-Benz E-Class cars, the A/C handle module will disengage the compressor in the event the refrigerant temperature and strain sensors never present a rise once the compressor is staying driven.
a/c compressor

Should the compressor isn’t turning, make sure the magnetic clutch engages when energized. Underlying problems here may perhaps consist of a bad relay, fuse, wiring difficulty or a defective clutch. In the event the clutch fails to cycle on and off once the A/C is turned on, jumping the clutch lead that has a jumper wire in the battery will present in the event the challenge is inside the clutch or elsewhere. When the clutch engages, the trouble could be the clutch power provide (relay, fuse, wiring, switch or control module). Make reference to a wiring diagram and work backward toward the battery to find out why the voltage is not acquiring by means of.

Numerous A/C programs possess a low-pressure cutout switch that prevents the compressor clutch from engaging if system pressure (the refrigerant charge) is as well very low. That is designed to secure the compressor from damage while in the event of the leak. So when the clutch isn’t engaging, check out the refrigerant charge along with the cutout switch. The clutch air gap is likewise vital for appropriate clutch operation. When the clearance is not appropriate, the clutch might slip and melt away or not engage at all. The specs is usually present in a service manual coupled with adjustment procedures. Frequently speaking, most clutches phone for any 0.015 to 0.040 inch press fit clearance.

How frequently do compressors fail as a result of “manufacturing defects?” Not quite usually. In keeping with one compressor manufacturer who examined 75 compressors that had failed and were returned under guarantee, only two were identified to get manufacturing defects. The rest failed on account of difficulties this kind of as too tiny oil inside the system, air within the system, contaminants during the system, or “installer error.” The latter category included using the wrong variety of compressor lubricant, not using ample lubricant, working with non-approved flushes to “clean” system parts, and working with cross-contaminated refrigerants. Debris left over from a past compressor failure was probably the most widespread result in of repeat compressor failures.

Often use the type of lubricant recommended for specific compressors. That is in particular crucial with rotary vane and scroll-type compressors. A replacement compressor may or may not contain lubricant in the factory. In some cases, the shipping oil has to be drained just before the compressor is installed. In other scenarios, the compressor could consist of a POE or PAG lubricant which could or might not be compatible with the vehicle demands. Follow the compressor suppliers installation directions to the letter to prevent warranty issues later on on.

Before including fresh oil to a system, all the old oil must initially be removed. This can avert cross-contamination of lubricants and reduce the threat of overcharging the system with too much oil (which could trigger cooling challenges). Generally refer to the OEM oil capacity chart for that vehicle application. The next can be a list of encouraged lubricants for R-134a import compressors:

Behr/Bosch rotary compressors – Ester 100;
Behr/Bosch piston compressors – PAG 46;
Calsonic V5 – PAG 150;
Calsonic V6 – PAG 46;
Diesel/Kiki (Zexel) DKS, DKV & DCW – PAG 46;
Hitachi (all) – PAG 46;
Keihin (all) – PAG 46;
Matsushita (all) – Ester 100;
Mitsubishi FX80 – PAG 100;
Mitsubishi FX105 – PAG 46;
Nihon (all) – Ester 100;
Nippondenso 6P, 10P, 10PA, 10P08E – PAG 46;
Nippondenso SP127, SP134 & 6E171 – PAG 46;
Nippondenso TV series – PAG 125;
Panasonic (all) – PAG 46;
Sanden SD500 & SD700 – PAG 100;
Sanden SD710, SDB, TV & TRS – PAG 46; and
Seik-Seiki (all) – Ester 100.

When a compressor fails, it may spit metallic debris into the A/C system. Most of this debris ends up in the condenser where it may block tubes and interfere with efficient cooling. Some of your debris may well be carried for the orifice tube or expansion valve and create a blockage. Debris can even be blown back into the suction tube. If not removed by flushing, it could be sucked back into a fresh compressor and result in it to fail.

Flushing the hoses is normally proposed following a compressor failure. Flushing the condenser is also recommended. But with many condensers, replacement will be the only sure-fire way to get rid of contaminants. Older serpentine-style tube-and-fin condensers can generally be flushed successfully, but parallel flow condensers are pretty difficult to clean. So as well are newer style condensers with extremely small extruded tubes. For these kinds of applications, the condenser should be replaced. It really is expensive, but not as expensive as ruining a fresh compressor due to residual debris or sludge inside the old condenser.

After flushing, install an in-line filter after the condenser to trap any debris that might even now be within. The filter will stop anything that works loose from getting carried to the orifice tube.

You ought to also install a filter screen while in the suction hose at the compressor inlet to guard the new compressor from any debris that might be upstream within the suction hose or evaporator.

Another reason for flushing would be to remove residual oil from the system. This can be necessary when retrofitting an older R-12 system towards the new ozone-safe R-134a refrigerant, but it can be also a good way to make sure the system contains the right amount of oil. Simply adding oil towards the system to change that which has been lost is really a guess at best, since there is no way to know how considerably has been lost due to leakage. Estimating a couple of ounces here and there for replacing an accumulator, receiver/drier, condenser, compressor or hoses just isn’t a really accurate means of determining how substantially oil needs to become added to the system when it is recharged with refrigerant. Flushing gets rid of the many oil so the exact amount specified by the motor vehicle producer is usually added back on the system.

What happens if there is as well minor or too much compressor oil inside the system? Not enough oil while in the system will cut down compressor lubrication and may well lead to premature failure. Excessive oil while in the system can puddle in the condenser and obstruct the flow of refrigerant causing a drop in cooling performance.

Other parts that should really also be replaced following a compressor failure include the accumulator or receiver/dryer, and the orifice tube or expansion valve. The former contains a bag of desiccant that traps moisture and acts as being a filter to safeguard the system. A new orifice tube or expansion valve is advisable simply because the small hole in this metering device can become easily plugged with debris. An aftermarket “variable orifice tube” can improve low-speed cooling.

After the compressor has been put in and the hoses are reconnected, the A/C system must be thoroughly evacuated by using a vacuum pump to pull out air and moisture. If not purged in the system, air will cut down cooling efficiency. Moisture will react with refrigerant oil and produce acids and sludge. Moisture also can freeze and plug the expansion valve causing noise, restrictions or even a complete blockage.

A pump capable of achieving high vacuum have to be utilised to pull out all in the contaminants. When air is pulled out of your system, it creates a vacuum that causes residual moisture to boil and evaporate. For this to occur, the vacuum pump has to be capable of pulling at least 29 in. Hg of vacuum throughout the evacuation process (which normally takes about 30 minutes).

One of your best ways to keep track of the evacuation process is using a Thermistor Vacuum Gauge that reads in microns (one inch of Mercury equals 25,400 microns). It takes a highly accurate instrument to measure vacuum because even a very little pressure left during the system can stop each of the residual moisture from boiling out. Only a 1/2 inch of mercury of stress (12,700 microns) can decrease the boiling point of water by more than 20 degrees F. Pulling out the final fraction of an inch of strain is the most critical step in the evacuation process to ensure complete removal of all air and moisture.

After pulling a deep vacuum on an A/C system, close all valves and shut off the vacuum pump. A slow rise in stress (which you can see on the Thermistor Vacuum Gauge) will occur as the residual moisture continues to boil off in the system. Pulling additional vacuum will get rid of this moisture. The evacuation is not going to be complete right up until the system can maintain a stable vacuum reading below 700 microns for at least three minutes.

The time it takes to completely evacuate an A/C system is often reduced by preconditioning the evaporator prior to hooking up the vacuum pump. Preconditioning raises the temperature so the moisture will boil off faster. The easiest way to raise the temperature of your evaporator is to run the engine with all the heater on HOT in the RECIRC mode. Turn the blower fan to HI and close all doors and windows. Once the engine reaches typical operating temperature, the evaporator will be thoroughly preheated and ready to evacuate.

If you’ve got difficulty maintaining a stable deep vacuum, there may be a leak during the A/C system, the vacuum pump or the equipment connections. Leak testing ought to be done prior to evacuating the system because evacuation isn’t constantly a reliable way to locate or even identify a small leak in an A/C system. Seals and O-rings that leak under stress may move underneath evacuation and not leak.

Finally, recharge the system with the advisable amount of refrigerant and compressor oil. Don’t overcharge and tend not to add a lot of oil. Examine cooling performance to verify that everything is doing work properly and the new compressor is doing its job.

Must you flush or not flush a dirty condenser? When an A/C system includes sludge, compressor debris or other solid contaminants, what is the most effective program of action?
flush condenser

Regrettably, there is no easy answer to this repair dilemma since the solution is determined by the situations, the automobile, the contaminants in the system and also the type of the condenser.

Condensers are trash collectors. Any debris that comes out of the compressor goes straight to the condenser. This is a very low spot while in the system so debris and oil naturally gather inside the condenser. But the debris will not stay put. Refrigerant flowing through the condenser can choose up debris and carry it to your orifice tube, expansion valve or back to the compressor. Debris can plug up the orifice tube or expansion valve, resulting in a blockage and reduction of cooling. Such blockages also can stop the circulation of oil from the system, starving the compressor for lubrication.

In the event the condenser is dirty, why not just replace it? That’s what numerous specialists propose. But condensers are costly to substitute, particularly on some newer cars that have a radiator/condenser cooling module. The option would be to clean the condenser having an authorized flushing chemical that hopefully will remove most or all of the contaminants. Flushing can preserve revenue, nevertheless it also raises the chance of a repeat compressor failure or an orifice tube or expansion valve blockage if the flush fails to remove all the gunk from your condenser.

Lots of compressor makers is not going to honor their guarantee if a replacement compressor fails thanks to recontamination or improper flushing. When you flushed the condenser and failed to acquire it clean, or you applied a cleaning item that is not accredited for flushing A/C techniques as well as the new compressor dies as a result, you chance a repeat compressor failure.

Some thing else to keep in mind about flushing is the fact that it follows the path of least resistance. In a serpentine-style condenser, there is only one path the refrigerant can abide by so the flushing chemical will adhere to the same path from your entrance on the exit. In a parallel flow condenser, the flush might not flow by all the tubes if some are partially or thoroughly blocked. Attempting to flush a dirty parallel flow condenser, for that reason, is almost certainly a waste of time.

Some say it is also a waste of time for you to flush newer serpentine condensers that have the really small extruded tubes. The openings only measure .040″ to .060″ – which improves cooling effectiveness but tends to make it really tricky to clean by flushing. Older tube-and-fin-style condensers with large tubes might be far more very easily cleaned with flush.

To cut back the potential risk of residual debris from a flushed condenser passing to the system and leading to issues, an in-line filter need to be installed during the liquid line following the condenser to trap any debris ahead of it might cause difficulties. A filter display also ought to be installed within the suction hose at the compressor inlet to trap any junk prior to it could enter the compressor. Debris can be blown backward to the suction hose and evaporator by a compressor failure, also, so never overlook this element of the system for anyone who is flushing to have rid of contaminants.

If flushing will not remove most of the contaminants, there might be so much residual debris within the condenser that it may plug the in-line filter. If this takes place, the resulting blockage may have the exact same impact as being a plugged orifice tube or expansion valve. Which you do not want.

Condenser Sludge & Black Death
Sludge is what you get when moisture gets inside an A/C system. Moisture reacts with the compressor lubricant and refrigerant and forms corrosive acids. The acids eat away on the metal parts and create sludge that can damage the compressor and plug the orifice tube or expansion valve.

Ford FX-15 compressors have had a high failure rate from “Black Death.” So should you find a Ford A/C system full of black goo, Ford recommends replacing the FX-15 compressor with a new or remanufactured FS-10 compressor and installing a new accumulator, hose assembly, orifice tube and condenser. Ford does not advise flushing the A/C system in this instance.

Corrosive acids also can eat pinholes throughout the evaporator and condenser from the inside out, creating refrigerant leaks. Flushing a leaky evaporator or condenser is usually a waste of time as the parts need to be replaced. There are sealants that could be utilised to temporarily plug a leaky evaporator or condenser, but some refrigerant recovery and recharging equipment suppliers do not encourage using sealants in A/C methods because the sealer could gum up the hoses and valves on service equipment.

Condenser Flushing
Only two car producers currently encourage flushing to clean condensers: Ford and GM. Ford approves flushing with VSL338 terpene-based solvent, while GM says it is actually OK to flush but with liquid R-134a only in a closed-loop recycling or recharging machine to reduce loss from the refrigerant.

Chrysler and Toyota do not encourage flushing. If an A/C system is contaminated and consists of debris, Chrysler says replace the condenser and hoses.

When you do flush parts, flush only the condenser, evaporator and hoses. Do not flush a compressor, accumulator, orifice tube or expansion valve. Substitute the accumulator, orifice tube or expansion valve. Also, do not flush hoses that contain in-line filters or mufflers. Replace these hoses with new ones.

Various types of flushing equipment are available. For open-loop flushing having an approved solvent, the setup includes a tank, hose, gun and adapters and catch pan. The equipment uses shop air to drive a 50 psi pump for the gun. Flushing takes about 15 minutes. Afterward, the condenser and other parts must be allowed to air dry for about 45 minutes in advance of they are returned to service.

Another type of flushing equipment uses shop air to pulse the flushing chemical from the components that are being cleaned. This helps dislodge debris and reduces the overall flushing time for you to 30 minutes or less. This type of power flushing equipment typically sells for $2,000 to $3,000.

Flushing also is usually utilised to remove residual lubricating oil from an A/C system. This really should be done when retrofitting older R-12 methods to R-134a to remove the mineral oil. Flushing is also recommended if an A/C system consists of too a great deal oil, dirty oil or the wrong type of oil.

Flushing Chemicals
Do not use any chemical except one that has been approved for flushing A/C programs. Do not use parts solvent, brake cleaner, degreaser, carburetor cleaner or similar products simply because they can leave behind chemical residues that may possibly result in problems. Also, avoid any chemicals that are hazardous or toxic.

A flushing agent should have good solvent properties, be compatible with all system components (O-rings, seals, etc.), be safe and easy to use, dry quickly and leave no residue that could bring about problems later on. R-11 used to be used as being a flush, but isn???t any longer due to the fact in the restrictions on CFCs. Liquid R-12 or R-134a can be utilized to flush a system, but may possibly not dislodge sound debris. Slow-drying ester oil-based hydrocarbon solvents also are available but typically require long flushing cycles (over an hour!), special flushing equipment and are challenging to remove (which raises the chance of oil overcharge and contamination). Some flushes also are flammable and dangerous to use.

One flushing solution approved by several compressor producers is HCFC-141B. This chemical is marketed under a number of brand names including “Dura Flush 141” and “Acc-U-Flush.” HCFC-141B has excellent cleansing properties, evaporates quickly and leaves almost no residue inside the system (less than 4 ppm). It really is nonflammable, safe to use and is compatible with both R-12 and R-134a systems. This type of product or service is usually made use of by having an open-loop flushing system.

Ford has accredited the use of a product or service called “Clear-Flush” by Bright Solutions Inc. This is actually a terpene-based cleaning solution that does an excellent job of removing contaminants. Additionally, it is compatible will all types of compressor oil and it evaporates conveniently.

A head gasket failure is constantly terrible news. A blown head gasket suggests the gasket might be leaking coolant into the crankcase (which may ruin the bearings), or the gasket is leaking compression (which leads to misfire as well as a reduction of power and fuel market). Should the head gasket is leaking coolant, your engine won’t run long because it’s going to quickly overheat. If it is leaking compression, you are able to hold driving but you may notice a significant reduction of power.

Why Do Head Gasket Fail?

Any number of things could possibly have caused the head gasket to fail. One of your most typical leads to is engine overheating. In case the engine overheats for just about any reason and gets really, truly hot, thermal expansion between the cylinder head and block can literally crush the head gasket armor about one or even more cylinders (typically the center cylinders mainly because warmth concentrates here more than any other spot during the engine). The moment the armor is crushed, it loses its seal and begins to leak compression and/or coolant. The gasket promptly erodes plus the affliction gets worse and worse till it cannot be ignored any longer.

If overheating was the induce of your head gasket failure, it is critical to find out why the engine overheated so it does not happen again. In the event the water pump, radiator, hoses or engine is leaking coolant, the leaks must be uncovered and fixed. If your engine got as well hot as the cooling fan was not doing work or the radiator was clogged, these troubles have to be diagnosed and repaired. Otherwise, the head gasket might fail again in the event the engine is running hot.

Sometimes a head gasket fails because the OEM head gasket is really a crappy gasket. That is a wonderful method of saying the engineer who designed the gasket failed for making it robust adequate to withstand the rigors of everyday driving, particularly as the engine accumulates loads of miles. Or, the supplies that had been utilized while in the OEM gasket turned out to be not the ideal option for your engine.

Years ago, Ford had a major dilemma with premature head gasket failures in 1995 Windstar minivans with all the 3.8L engine as the OEM gasket just did not stand up very properly. Precisely the same factor took place to lots of early Basic Motors 2.4L Quad Four engines, and lots of very first generation Dodge Neon 2.0L engines. In many of those engines, the OEM head gasket started to leak just after 50,000 to 60,000 miles. These challenges are historical past now, but comparable cases may well crop up at any time.

Most final model engines now use Multi-Layer Steel (MLS) head gaskets given that they are significantly much better and more resilient than nonastestos or graphite cylinder head gaskets. Aftermarket MLS head gaskets are now out there for many “problem” engines which might be known to eat head gaskets, like the early Neon 2.0L engines and Toyota 3.4L engines.

Some engines will also be really hard on head gaskets because they create hot spots inside the cylinder head in between the center cylinders. These contain older Honda Civic 1.3 and 1.5L engines. The majority of the aftermarket replacement gaskets for these applications consist of a particular reinforcement amongst the center cylinders to resist thermal crush so the gasket will not fail.

On Mitsubishi 3.0L V6 and Toyota 3.0L engines, the armor around the combustion chambers within the OEM gasket often cracks as a result of thermal movement concerning the cylinder head and block. Many aftermarket replacement gaskets for these engines possess a non-stick coating that provies some “give” so the gasket does not self-destruct as being the engine heats up and cools down over and in excess of once again.

Head gaskets could also fail if an engine features a preignition or detonation dilemma. After a while, it is going to enhance the tension around the head gasket and induce it to fail. Preignition signifies a hot spot in the combustion chamber is resulting in the fuel to ignite just before the spark plug fires. This may be incredibly damaging to your pistons. Preignition can take place once the engine is running also hot as a result of a cooling challenge.

Detonation could take place if spark timing is over-advanced or even the fuel mixture is also lean, or even the EGR system is not really operating, or there may be as well substantially compression and/or not sufficient octane during the fuel. Detonation leads to spark knock, which can make a pinging or rattling noise if the engine is lugging or accelerating beneath load. In lots of situations, the trigger can be a build-up of carbon deposits inside the combustion chamber and around the tops in the pistons fro brief trip stop-and-go city driving. You will need to obtain the car out around the road and blow the carbon out.

Head Gasket Failure Thanks to Installation Errors

If a head gasket on a a short while ago set up or rebuilt engine fails, possibilities are the problem was “installer error”. Which is a nice way of saying the guy who assembled your engine screwed-up. Perhaps he did not tighten down the head bolts in the suitable sequence or to your specified torque. Perhaps the torque wrench he utilised was inaccurate, or he did not abide by the proper tightening procedure. Possibly the bolt threads had been dirty, or the bolts have been broken or stretched. Or maybe the surface from the cylinder head or engine block were not clean, smooth or flat. Any of those issues may cause a poor seal and outcome within a premature head gasket failure.

For bimetal engines with composition gaskets, the proposed surface finish is commonly 20 to 50 microinches RA . This compares to 60 to 120 RA for cast-iron engines together with the similar form of gaskets. Should the engine employs an MLS head gasket, the advised surface finish could be 20 RA or much less.

Flatness is significant, as well. On most pushrod engines with cast iron heads, there should really be not more than 0.003 in. (0.076 mm) out-of-flat lengthwise in V6 heads, 0.004 in. (0.102 mm) in four-cylinder or V8 heads, and 0.006 in. (0.152 mm) in straight six-cylinder heads. In case the engine has aluminum heads, there need to be not more than 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) out-of-flat in any path.

In case you are replacing a head gasket on your own, make sure the surface from the engine block and cylinder head are clean, smooth and flat. Stick to the gasket supplier’s installation instructions. Never use sealer on a gentle faced or coated head gasket, or an MLS head gasket. Sealer is mostly only demanded on some one-piece steel uncoated head gaskets.

Look up the cylinder head bolt torque specs to your engine, and tighten the bolts within the specified sequence towards the specified torque applying a torque wrench. The head bolts must be tightened accurately to adequately load and seal the head gasket. If this isn’t carried out, the head gasket may leak creating a repeat head gasket failure.

Wheel alignment refers to the geometrical partnership on the wheels for the car itself, to every single other and also to the road. Ideally, all 4 wheels should be aimed straight ahead, parallel to each and every other, perpendicular on the road and perpendicular to their respective axles. This can develop the least number of rolling resistance, the least volume of friction, the least number of tire wear and also the greatest traction. The essential alignment angles we’re referring to right here are toe, camber and caster.


Toe would be the most critical wheel alignment angle since it has the greatest effect on tire wear. Toe refers to your parallelism concerning the wheels as viewed from over and it is ordinarily measured in inches or millimeters. When both front wheels are aimed straight ahead as well as the distance between the top edges of both front tires is precisely the identical as the distance in between the trailing edges, the wheels have “zero toe” and therefore are theoretically aligned. We say in concept for the reason that toe alignment improvements when the automobile is currently being driven.
toe alignment

The joints and sockets during the suspension and steering linkage all possess a tiny perform, which when added with each other can permit wheel alignment to alter based upon how the steering and suspension are loaded. Likewise, the rubber bushings in the control arms have some compliance and deflect slightly once the motor vehicle accelerates, brakes, turns and cruises. This too can let toe alignment to alter. To compensate, slightly bit of “toe-in” or “toe-out” could be additional once the wheels are aligned dependant upon whether the motor vehicle has front- or rear-wheel drive.

Toe-in implies the front edges on the tires are closer together than the rear edges. Most rear-wheel drive cars and trucks have alignment specifications that contact for any tiny bit of toe-in (say 1/16th of an inch or so). This will likely make zero rolling toe because the vehicle is being driven down the road since the all-natural tendency for that front and rear wheels should be to toe-out due to rolling resistance and compliance within the steering and suspension.

Toe-out is once the front edges from the tires are farther apart than the rear edges. This might occur in the event the tie rod ends are worn, or when the manage arm bushings have collapsed. Toe-out is usually a poor situation to own because it causes the tires to scrub as they roll along. Only 1/8th inch of toe-out will scrub the tires sideways 28 feet for each mile driven. At this price, it doesn’t take long to wear down the tread.

A traditional symptom of toe misalignment is often a feathered put on pattern across both front tires. The route from the feathering tells you if your tires are toed-in or toed-out (rough edges towards the inside signal toe-in even though rough edges to your outdoors indicate toe-out). But on radial tires, toe misalignment tends to roll the shoulder in the tire below because it scrubs generating put on around the inner or outer ribs only. Toe-in will put on the outer rib though toe-out will lead to put on around the inner rib. In each instances, put on may be aggravated all the more if your tires are underinflated.

Replacing the tires could substitute the worn rubber, nonetheless it will not remove the tire put on trouble. The new tires will suffer the identical fate unless the cause of the misalignment is recognized and toe is reset to specifications. So anytime the tires present toe put on, toe alignment need to be checked to see if it is actually from range. Also, the steering must be inspected for worn or bent parts. Furthermore to checking for loose or worn tie rod ends, hunt for bent steering arms or tie rods because either can cause toe wear, also.

Strange since it may perhaps look, on some front-wheel drive cars and minivans, a slight volume of toe-out (up to about 1/16th inch) may well be specified when aligning the wheels to compensate for toe-in that happens because the front wheels pull the motor vehicle down the road. Drive torque more than offsets the compliance from the steering and suspension allowing both front wheels to toe-in slightly when accelerating. This really is also what causes “torque steer” (a sudden steering pull) in some FWD cars that have unequal length halfshafts. Underneath really hard acceleration, the left wheel with all the shorter halfshaft experiences much more toe-in than the correct wheel with the extended halfshaft. The result is unequal toe modifications as well as a steering pull for the suitable. Car suppliers have lowered or eradicated torque steer in lots of FWD cars through the use of equal length halfshafts and/or stiffer manage arm bushings.


Worn or loose tie rod ends should generally be replaced. But new tie rod ends won’t necessarily cure a tire put on problem unless the tie rods are appropriately adjusted soon after the new parts have been set up.

Switching the tie rod ends, tie rods or perhaps a steering rack will alter the distance between the steering arms, which improvements toe. So immediately after the parts are actually put in, some variety of alignment equipment must be employed to measure toe. Then and only then can the tie rods be adjusted to set toe within the automobile manufacturer’s specifications (constantly use the specs listed in an alignment reference manual or services manual, in no way “rule of thumb” settings, mainly because every automobile is unique).

One old mechanic’s trick when replacing tie rod ends is always to count the number of turns it requires to unscrew a tie rod end, then to implement the identical quantity of turns when screwing it back on. This only operates in the event the exact same tie rod end is getting reinstalled because the length from the tie rod finish and threading may be different on a new aspect. What’s additional, there’s no approach to know if your authentic alignment setting was appropriate or not. That’s why toe should really often be measured and readjusted as required after parts are actually replaced.

Anything else to keep in mind about toe is usually that rear toe is equally as important on front toe — particularly if a motor vehicle has an independent rear suspension or rear toe adjustments. This consists of most front-wheel drive cars and minivans as well as some rear-wheel drive cars. Rear toe misalignment may cause toe wear on each the front and rear tires by creating a steering pull to one side. Not like front toe that is self-centering as a consequence of the steering linkage, a difference in rear toe angles side-to-side produces anything named a “thrust angle.” The end result would be the identical as rear axle misalignment that leads to the motor vehicle to pull or cause one side.

So how does this bring about wear while in the front tires? Since we forgot to tell you that front toe changes slightly anytime the wheels are steered to either side. As the inside wheel follows a shorter arc than the outside wheel, the steering arms are angles somewhat so the wheels tow-out with respect to one another if the wheels are turned to one side. The quantity of toe-out is only several degrees, however it assists to lessen scuffing and tire put on. In case the rear wheels are misaligned, even though, and also the driver has to regular steer off-center to keep the automobile going straight, it signifies the front wheels are continuously toed-out. Over a time period, this can cause toe wear to appear about the front tires. The remedy? Check out and realign rear toe as required.

Rear-wheel drive cars and trucks that do not have independent rear suspensions have fixed rear toe settings, so no adjustments are achievable. But on most other cars, rear toe is usually adjusted either by using factory adjustments (in which readily available) or by installing aftermarket alignment aids which include toe/camber shims, offset bushings, and so forth.
camber alignment


The next essential wheel alignment angle you need to know one thing about is camber. Camber refers to the tilt in the wheels as viewed from the front or rear. Camber will be the inward (damaging) or outward (constructive) tilt of the wheels. It really is commonly measured in degrees.

As with toe, zero camber (correctly perpendicular for the road) would be the excellent alignment setting. But like toe, camber changes because the vehicle is staying loaded and every single time the motor vehicle encounters a bump or dip during the road. The up and down motions in the suspension transform the geometry on the control arms and struts, which leads to camber to change. So many static camber alignment specs may possibly allow as much as a degree of much more of positive or negative camber dependant upon the style in the suspension. Like a rule, camber settings should usually be inside half a degree side-to-side.

If camber is from specs, a tire will put on unevenly on one shoulder and the automobile may perhaps pull toward the side with the most camber. Camber usually only influences one wheel, so if only one tire demonstrates unusual shoulder put on it’s typically a symptom of camber misalignment.

Take into account that camber applies to each front and rear wheels, although only vehicles with independent rear suspensions commonly have rear camber alignment specifications. Most rear-wheel drive cars and trucks with solid axles don’t have rear camber specifications because there’s no method to modify it (even so, a bent rear axle can cause a camber difficulty!).

Extreme camber is often due to a bent spindle, mislocated strut tower, bent strut, worn or collapsed handle arm bushing, bent management arm or perhaps a weak or broken spring. If any of those parts are replaced, camber must be checked and adjusted as wanted right after the parts are installed. And of motor vehicles that do not have camber adjustments to the struts or control arms, or provide only a minimal volume of adjustment, you can find aftermarket camber adjustment aids that may help.
caster alignment


The third most vital wheel alignment angle is caster, and that is the forward (negative) or rearward (optimistic) tilt with the steering axis as viewed in the side. Caster is normally measured in degrees, and only applies towards the front wheels simply because these are the only ones that steer (except for that handful of oddball Japanese cars that had four-wheel steering).

Caster is really a weird angle since it does not have an effect on tire wear right. It’s best influence is on steering stability, steering effort and steering return. So it is frequently one of the most ignored angle.

Most automobiles possess a small quantity of optimistic caster to offer quick steering return and large speed stability. This takes place because caster forces the spindle to angle down somewhat as being the wheels turn. This lifts the chassis and brings a lot more weight to bear within the wheels because they turns. The net effect is always that caster assists keep the wheels aimed straight ahead for improved steering stability, and aids the wheels return for the straight ahead position immediately after turning. A lot of European luxury sedans have a lot of caster for this really purpose since it delivers a extra stable feel at highway speeds. The downside is always that it raises steering hard work and steering feedback towards the driver.

So what comes about if caster is from specs? If there exists a lot of difference in caster side-to-side, it might bring about a motor vehicle to drift or lead to one side. Some alignment specs phone to get a slight big difference in caster to compensate for road crown. But being a rule, caster should usually be inside of half a degree side-to-side.

The identical variety of complications that may lead to camber misalignment can cause caster misalignment: a bent spindle, mislocated strut tower, bent strut, worn or collapsed manage arm bushing, bent control arm or even a weak or broken spring. So if any of these parts are replaced, caster should really be checked and readjusted as crucial after the parts happen to be put in.

Ride height can also affect caster. Spring sag or overloading a car can alter ride height as much as many inches, which could transform caster readings by up to a degree or even more. This may perhaps contribute to steering instability or modify steering hard work. So checking ride height is likewise a significant component of aligning the wheels. If ride height is under specs, weak springs ought to be replaced. Upgrade opportunities right here include installing variable rate springs, air springs, overload shocks or air-assist shocks on a automobile which is utilized for towing or hauling heavier than ordinary loads.


The only way to ensure that the wheels are adequately aligned will be to check out wheel alignment periodically. The moment set wheel alignment should not modify unless of course parts turn into worn or broken. Likewise, it makes no sense to try to realign the wheels right up until worn or broken parts happen to be replaced. Worn parts will not hold an accurate alignment mainly because they have excessive play. There’s also the danger that a part failure could cause the collapse in the suspension and/or reduction of steering control (a broken ball joint or tie rod end, for example).

Most authorities recommend an annual alignment check, or to check wheel alignment when the tires are replaced. Even new vehicles can advantage from an alignment check if your wheels weren’t effectively adjusted on the factory. Some factory specifications let a rather broad variety of settings, which may offer much less than perfect tire wear and managing qualities. Setting the wheels to the “preferred” or mid-range settings generally provides the best effects.

Most retailers today promote four-wheel alignments instead of two-wheel (front only) alignments. Why? Simply because all 4 wheels impact directional stability, steering and handling. Four-wheel alignments tend to be more high priced, consider a bit longer and involve additional sophisticated equipment, but need to be deemed a have to for many front-wheel drive cars and minivans as well as rear-wheel drive cars with independent rear suspensions.

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is usually a type of fuel injection system that sprays gasoline straight into the combustion chamber. Like engines outfitted with Multiport Fuel Injection (MFI) techniques, there exists a separate fuel injector for every of your engine’s cylinders. But rather than mounting the injectors while in the intake manifold so the injectors spray fuel to the consumption ports in the cylinder head, the GDI injectors are mounted in the cylinder head and spray fuel to the combustion chamber. The fuel bypasses the intake valves totally and enters the combustion chamber being a higher pressure mist.

Large Stress Fuel Injection

Direct injection calls for particularly large operating pressures (as much as 2200 PSI) in comparison with typical multiport fuel injection systems that typically involve only 40 to 60 PSI. Direct injection needs a lot more delivery pressure to conquer compression stress inside the cylinder and also to delivery a higher volume of fuel in a shorter period of time.

With ordinary MFI fuel injection, the fuel is sprayed into the intake port that is beneath vacuum. The fuel mist is then drawn into the combustion chamber coupled with the incoming air, mixed collectively during the compression stroke, then ignited from the spark plug. With GDI, only air is drawn in to the cylinder through the consumption stroke. As the piston comes up over the compression stroke, fuel is injected to the cylinder prior to ignition. The timing of your injection will depend on engine speed, load and operating problems. In some circumstances (such as light cruise), fuel may possibly not be injected until finally the piston has virtually reached Top Dead Center on its compression stroke. Supplemental injection pulses of fuel might also be delivered once the initial mixture ignites to keep the flame burning over the power stroke.

Advantages of Gasoline Direct Injection

Spraying fuel right to the combustion chamber as compression is building, and throughout and after first combustion will allow the engine to produce far more power using significantly less fuel. Engines with GDI can tolerate incredibly lean fuel mixtures underneath light load and cruise disorders. The net result is typically 15 to 25 % improved fuel overall economy when compared to multiport fuel injection.

The capability to closely management the fuel mixture and give the engine just what it needs at just the ideal minute also implies GDI engines can handle increased static compression ratios. The Buick 3.6L V6 includes a compression ratio of 11.3 to one, which will help make improvements to combustion efficiency and power. GDI engines normally create far more horsepower than these with multiport injection techniques.

Gasoline Direct Injection Applications

Gasoline direct injection is employed on a range of late model engines: Audi, BMW, GM, Ford, Lexus, Mazda, MINI, Nissan, Porsche, VW and other people. Some recent domestic applications include things like Ford Ecoboost engines (which are also turbocharged) from the 2010 Focus & Edge and 2011 Explorer, and the DI 3.6L V6 engine inside the 2010 Buick LaCrosse and Enclave, 2010 Camaro and GMC Acadia.